Uncovering the five levels of remote work! Which one are you at?


Rachita Jain


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Remote work setup has become quite popular in recent years. It is driven by upgrades in technology, the rise of the internet, and a growing emphasis on work-life balance. Remote work trends as it offers numerous benefits for both employees and employers, including:
  • Increased flexibility,
  • Reduced commuting time and expenses,
  • Improved productivity,
  • Access to a larger talent pool, and
  • Cost savings for companies by eliminating the need for extensive office spaces.
You can work remotely from your home, coworking spaces, or any other location that suits your needs and preferences. Communication and collaboration are often facilitated through various tools such as email, instant messaging, video conferencing, project management software, and cloud-based storage solutions.
One of the leading proponents of this working method is Matt Mullenweg, CEO of Automattic- the company that employed over 1,000 workers "in 75 countries speaking 93 different languages."
He described his "five levels of remote work" in a podcast interview with Sam Harris, which was the finest way to explain some of the subtle nuances of remote work.

What is remote work?

Remote work, or working from home, refers to performing work tasks and responsibilities outside of a traditional office environment. It allows employees to carry out their job duties from any location, typically using electronic communication tools and internet connectivity to collaborate with colleagues, access company resources, and complete work assignments.

The five levels of distributed teams

Matt Mullenweg, the creator of Automattic, the organization that created WordPress, the platform that supports 35% of all websites on the internet, came up with five levels of remote working.
Mullenweg avoids discussing remote work because it implies a centralized hub or office from which the employee is dispersed. With his team dispersed worldwide, he terms it as distributed working.
The five levels of distributed working that Mullenweg lists are mentioned below!

The first level- No deliberate action

Level 1 of the five levels of remote work in Matt Mullenweg's framework represents a traditional work environment where you primarily work from a physical office location. At this level, the office serves as the central hub for work activities, collaboration, and communication. You are expected to be within the walls of the office during regular working hours, and most interactions and meetings occur face-to-face.


  • At this level, there is no specific strategy or deliberate effort to support remote work within the organization.
  • You may occasionally work remotely, but it is more of an ad hoc or informal arrangement rather than an established remote work policy.
  • You have access to your email through smartphone and might call into a few meetings. However, you put off most tasks until you are back at work.
  • Work is done with company tools, in company facilities, and on company time. You lack specialized hardware and might need a cumbersome VPN to access essential office tools like email or your calendar.
  • Even businesses that occasionally let employees "be available" from home would fall under this category because your company lacks the necessary infrastructure or tools to conduct a successful work-from-home setup.


  1. Infrastructure and technology: Setting up the necessary infrastructure and technology to support remote work can be challenging. This includes having reliable internet access, hardware and software, and implementing secure communication and collaboration tools.
  1. Communication: You may face challenges in coordinating and collaborating on projects, as you don't have the benefit of face-to-face interactions, which you are habitual to.
  1. Micromanagement: As you are unfamiliar with such kind of work setup, you lack the understanding of operating in such a system.

The second level- Office 2.0- The online version

Level 2 of remote working involves recreating the office environment online, where employees primarily work remotely but strive to replicate the collaboration and interaction found in a physical office setting. This level of five levels of remote work typically involves leveraging digital tools and technologies to facilitate virtual teamwork.
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  • To ensure synchronization among the remote team, companies now begin to download apps like Zoom or Slack.
  • It is also when you seek to install software on your computers for management and oversight purposes.
  • At this level, employees and employers try replicating the office scenario at their homes.
  • On this level, your company worries about whether the work gets done, meetings are constantly interrupted, and workdays are long.


  • Technical difficulties: Remote work heavily relies on technology, and technical issues can hinder productivity. Internet connectivity problems, software glitches, hardware malfunctions, or insufficient IT support can disrupt workflow and communication on the level two of five levels of remote work.
  • Virtual fatigue: Constantly being in virtual meetings and relying on digital communication can lead to virtual fatigue. Since you are not habitual to it, spending long hours in front of screens, back-to-back video meetings, and a lack of non-verbal cues can drain energy and affect concentration.
  • Collaboration and communication barriers: Because it is a transition phase, despite the availability of collaboration tools, there are still many challenges to effective collaboration. Misinterpretation of messages, delayed response, and difficulty conveying tone and context can impede effective teamwork.
  • Social isolation: Remote work can be isolating, especially for workers who thrive on office interactions. The lack of informal office conversations and in-person socialization can impact morale and engagement.
  • Managerial adaptation: Managers must adapt their leadership style to effectively manage remote teams. Providing guidance, support, and feedback remotely requires different approaches than in-person management.
  • Data security and privacy: Working remotely increases the risk of data breaches and privacy concerns. Employees working from various locations may have different security measures in place, making it essential to enforce strong security protocols and provide training on data protection. Implementing secure file sharing, VPNs, and multi-factor authentication can help safeguard sensitive information.

The third level- Adapting to the medium

People start becoming used to working remotely at this level of five levels of remote work. They usually invest in newer technology, set up a home office, are at least somewhat comfortable with video and collaboration tools, and continue to function mostly as if they were in the office.
Additionally, this is when people invest in writing skills and written communication. The printed word has the greatest power in the remote work setup. As a result, writing expertise, clarity, and quality become increasingly important.


  • At this point, meetings frequently transition from "simple tasks" like information sharing to "complex tasks" like issue solving, strategy development, and conflict resolution.
  • People use shared papers and have someone take notes during video calls rather than everyone taking notes. Everyone could observe the data being recorded in real time via the shared screen.
  • Effective written communication becomes valuable as the advantages of remote work start to become apparent.
  • Additionally, this is where people begin to spend money on high-tech equipment.
  • The focus is on developing strong relationships and fostering a sense of camaraderie.


  1. Technical proficiency: The third level of remote work often relies on advanced tools, software, and platforms. Employees need to develop technical proficiency to effectively navigate and utilize these tools. It can be strenuous for individuals who are not accustomed to using such technologies or have limited technical skills.
  1. Learning curve: Employees need time to understand and comprehend the features, functionalities, and best practices associated with the remote tools they are using. This learning curve can affect productivity and efficiency initially as individuals adapt to the new medium.
  1. Communication barriers: Remote work at the third level often involves working with team members from different locations, time zones, and cultural backgrounds. These differences can create communication barriers due to language barriers, different communication styles, or varying cultural norms.
  1. Managing distractions: Remote work offers flexibility but also presents distractions that can disrupt productivity. Adapting to the medium requires individuals to develop strategies to minimize distractions and maintain focus.

The fourth level- Asynched

Level 4 of remote work is often referred to as becoming asynchronous, where teams focus on minimizing dependencies on real-time communication and embrace a more flexible work schedule.
This is that level of the five levels of remote work where you realize the benefits of the freedom to manage your own time, schedules, and work-life balance.
You are freed from command and control as long as everyone knows the deliverables and when they are due.


  • Individuals can set their work hours and have more control over their schedules. They are not bound to traditional 9-to-5 working hours and can adapt their work to fit their preferences and needs.
  • Teams rely on asynchronous communication methods, such as email, project management tools, or collaboration platforms, to share information and collaborate.
  • Level 4 requires teams to establish clear communication protocols to compensate for the lack of real-time communication. These protocols outline expectations for response times, message formatting, and other guidelines to ensure effective collaboration despite time differences.
  • In Level 4, the focus shifts from monitoring activities or presence to evaluating results and outcomes. Instead of measuring productivity based on the number of hours worked, teams assess the quality of deliverables and the impact of work on organizational goals.
  • Since real-time conversations are limited, it becomes crucial to capture and share information effectively to ensure continuity and enable collaboration across time zones.
  • People are responsible for managing time, prioritizing tasks, and delivering results. With increased autonomy comes a higher level of accountability for meeting deadlines and achieving goals.


  • Time zone differences: In a globally distributed team, time zone variations can be challenging. Coordinating meetings, collaborative discussions, and decision-making become more complex when team members are spread across different time zones.
  • Maintaining productivity: Asynchronous work gives individuals more flexibility in choosing when to work but also requires self-discipline and time management skills. Without the structure of synchronous work, some individuals may struggle to stay focused and maintain productivity.
  • Miscommunication and interpretation: Asynchronous communication primarily relies on written messages, which can lead to misinterpretation or lack of clarity. Without the immediate feedback and context of real-time conversations, messages can be misunderstood, leading to delays, errors, or misunderstandings. Being explicit, concise, and using effective written communication practices becomes crucial.
  • Knowledge sharing and collaboration: Asynchronous work can hinder spontaneous knowledge sharing and collaboration that often occurs during real-time interactions.

The fifth level- Nirvana

Nirvana, the fifth stage of the five levels of remote work, is the ultimate degree of remote work, where individuals or teams have attained an ideal or optimal remote work setting. It is a blissful state of remote work where satisfaction, work-life balance, and productivity are all maximized.
The distributed team functions more effectively than a physical team ever could. Employees have time to look after their physical and emotional well-being to give their best work. No more commutes, hot/cold offices, shared restrooms, or opportunistic interruptions.
Mullenweg compares this level to putting more attention on "environment design" in terms of the organizational culture and the actual workspaces.


  • Employees have complete control over their schedules and can choose when and where they work without limitations or fixed working hours.
  • Advanced tools and technologies enable smooth collaboration and communication.
  • Employers trust their remote workers and focus on outcomes rather than micromanagement. There is a strong emphasis on results and accountability.
  • Remote workers have a healthy work-life balance, with clear boundaries between work and personal life. Their well-being is prioritized, and they have the freedom to take breaks when needed.
  • Remote teams have streamlined workflows and optimized processes that maximize productivity and minimize inefficiencies.
  • Despite the physical distance, remote teams foster a sense of camaraderie, collaboration, and support, ensuring a strong team culture even in virtual environments.


  1. Overcoming isolation: Remote work at the Nirvana level may involve minimal in-person interactions, as teams are distributed across different locations. This can lead to isolation or reduced social connections, which can impact employee morale and productivity.
  1. Sustaining team culture and cohesion: In a fully remote environment, building and maintaining a strong team culture can be challenging. Developing trust, fostering collaboration, and nurturing a sense of belonging may require additional effort and innovative approaches to overcome the physical distance and ensure everyone feels connected.
  1. Maintaining self-discipline: With complete control over their schedules, individuals may struggle with self-discipline and time management. Without proper structure and accountability, productivity could suffer.
  1. Cybersecurity risks: Remote work often involves accessing company systems and data from different locations and devices. Ensuring the security of sensitive information is significant. Protecting against cyber threats becomes crucial at the highest level of remote work.

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